I know how frustrating it can be... Im not at my usual computer now, but when I get there ill check specifics.
Here is from my memory:
1. It works fine with VS2012 with a little bit of trickery.
2. Ill see if I can find the DfuSe version that Im using for you.
3. Micro-framework: If I remember, its not the latest, but the second to latest version. Just like full .net latest is 4.5, but the most widely used is still 4.0
4. Netduino SDK, I think there is a new release with each Go! update, I've been using the latest (should be pinned on this board)
Like I said, Ill get specifics and links when Im back at home. In the mean time, either post back here with any other questions you have. I can help you get it working with VS2012 also.