Netduino Plus 2 is capable of doing that, but not in managed (C#) code - you'd have to write so called 'native driver' in C/C++, include it in the firmware and expose its functionality via managed wrapper class. If you already have working C/C++ code, for example a library, then it is relatively easy to add it to the firmware, otherwise I would recommend you to start coding the native driver using any of available ARM toolchains that support Cortex-M4 (there are dozen of them, even free GCC-based ones), it will make the development process and debugging much easier. While it is possible to flash STM32 micros using DFU over USB, for debugging you'd probably need to solder in the 0.05" pitch header for mini-JTAG connector and use hardware debugger/programmer, such as ST-LINK/V2 or similar.
Alternatively, you can use STM32F4-Discovery board, which has the same microcontroller, the only change required is to adjust PLL parameter in the firmware source to account for different crystal frequency (8 Mhz vs. 25 MHz on Netduino Plus 2); or replace the crystal. It comes with integrated ST-LINK programmer.
There are also STM32F4-based boards made by GHI Electronics, Mountaineer Group, Olimex and maybe others. And plenty of completely different ARM boards
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